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Los políticos, bien formados

De Andrea Pérez-Bouzada. Cindo Dias.

Se comienza con el estudio. Conocer bien al electorado y al candidato son aspectos imprescindibles para enfrentarse a una campaña electoral. ‘La investigación profunda no siempre se hace, pero te ayuda a conocer a tu electorado y elegir los temas más adecuados’, señala Daniel Ureña, socio director de MAS Consulting Group España y director del curso de Dirección de Campañas Electorales que esta compañía realizará este verano junto con la Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.

Los expertos aseguran que la tendencia lleva a apostar por políticos espontáneos, cercanos y que desprendan naturalidad. ‘La identidad del candidato y su imagen deben coincidir. En caso de que no sea así se debe cambiar la imagen, aunque esto cuesta mucho tiempo y dinero. Cambiar a la persona no da buenos resultados’, afirma el consultor político José Luis Sanchís.

‘Es esencial que el político sea él mismo. Se ha demostrado que si fuerzas para agradar al público te equivocas’, comenta Luis Arroyo, director del gabinete del Secretario de Estado de Comunicación del Gobierno. Uno de los errores más frecuentes de los partidos en campaña es la falta de una estrategia única y bien definida. ‘A veces le preguntas a un candidato por su estrategia y no la sabe. Es tu palabra, tu frase, la historia que cuentas y hay que mantenerla durante toda la campaña’, añade Arroyo.

Además, los mensajes deben ser claros y llegar a la gente. Sanchís asegura que ‘te tienes que poner al nivel del electorado que te va a votar, y el lenguaje del mensaje tiene que ser adecuado a la audiencia’.


‘Los mensajes positivos y la idea de futuro proporcionan mejores resultados que apelar al miedo’, señala Daniel Ureña

El experto señala que cada campaña es diferente, así como el electorado y los candidatos. Sin embargo, destaca que ante una posición ventajosa en los sondeos, ‘es más fácil que se produzca la victoria si realizas una campaña tranquila, más explicativa’. Si la situación es la contraria, ‘un estilo más agresivo, con una campaña llamativa sería lo adecuado’, comenta.

La gestión de las emociones es fundamental. Otra de las tendencias de la comunicación electoral es la apuesta por el optimismo. ‘Apelar al miedo puede ser un error. Las campañas tienen que abogar por los sentimientos positivos y la idea de futuro’, destaca Daniel Ureña.

La imagen del político también importa. Sin embargo, los especialistas aseguran que la cuestión del aspecto físico está algo mitificada. ‘Importa más la imagen política que la física, el comportamiento humano, su ideología, la proximidad o la experiencia. Hay muchos políticos de escasa belleza que son muy respetados políticamente’, afirma José Luis Sanchís. ‘Lo que no se perdona es la arrogancia y la mentira’, añade Luis Arroyo.

Expertos

Daniel Ureña. Socio director de MAS Consulting.

‘Una investigación profunda te ayuda a conocer al electorado y facilita la creación de los mensajes más oportunos para la campaña’ .

José L. Sanchís. Consultor político internacional

‘Es importante que la identidad del político coincida con su imagen. Si no, la obtención de los resultados deseados será mucho más difícil’.

Luis Arroyo. Comunicación en Moncloa

‘Uno de los errores más frecuentes es la falta de una única estrategia que esté bien definida. A veces preguntas a un candidato y no la conoce’.

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